Heaviness

The lasting sensation left on the tongue by quality wines.

Length on the palate

The measure of the aroma sensation left on the palate by a drop of wine; intense at the beginning and fading progressively, it can be also called as "longueur en bouche".

Harmonious

Term used for wines that present their qualities in an elegant way, in addition to their good balance.

Alcolohic Strength

Alcohol rate of a wine: Most of the white wines have an alcoholic strength of 9%-14%, this rate is between 11%-14% for red wines.

American Oak

Oak wood originated from American forests; barrels produced by using this wood are generraly used by producers in some wine growing regions (such as Spain and Austria) to age their wines.

A.O.C.

Abbreviation for Appelation d'Origine Contrôlée or Appelation Contrôlée and presented as AC: That means the registered destination of orifin. This is an official category specified for highest quality wines in France that the name comes from, according to grape varieties and other features set by legislations.

Appelation

The special region where the grapes originated from.

Aroma

The smell of a wine. Some tasters use the aroma term for young wines, and use the term bouquet for older and more complex wines.

Aromatic

Used for wines with a pronounced smell, fruity or floral especially. Some kinds of grapes may also be described as aromatic for the reason that the wines produced from these types of grapes have very strong aromas.

Residual Sugar

The remaining sugar amount in the wine following the fermentation process.

Acidity

Generally comprising the tartaric acid (a natural acid found in grapes), that constitutes %0.5-0.7% of a wine.

Noble rot

A rot formed on white grapes by a fungus called "Botrytis Cinerea". Grapes affected by the noble rot loose water, and this results in the concentration of sugar. Despite their unpleasant appearance, these grapes are essential for world-famous and long-lived wines such as Sauternes.

Legs

Legs (Fr jambes) and tears (Fr tears) appear on the interior of the glass following a circular swirling of the wine, it rises and glides downwards. Legs shall be more apparent in wines with a high alcoholic concentration.

Primary Aromas

Fresh aromas related to grapes used for making wine.

Finish

The last sensation left in the mouth by the wine after swallowing or spitting.

Blanc de Blancs

This French term designates sparkling wines produced exclusively by white grapes. To give an example, champagnes that are produced by 100% chardonnay grapes; these champagnes are called as Blanc de Blancs.

Bodega

Term used for wineries in Spain, Chile & Argentina. Can also mean the building where the wine is kept.

Nose

Name used for analyzing the smell of a wine. Term used as a synonym to smell, aroma and bouquet terms.

Strong

Used for highly intense wines.

Castello

Castle, or wine domain in Italian.

Château

French word used to describe large wine domains within especially Bordeaux and other French regions.

Classico

Italian term that designates some category of DOCG and DOC wines produced from grapes located within these regions, as specified by Italian Law.

Cru Classé

Five official regions in the French Médoc region standardized in 1855.

Degustation

Tasting performed in order to evaluate the wine with its strengths and weaknesses.

Decantation

Pouring the wine into a container called decanter in order to aerate or to filter residues.

Balance

A feature that quality wines must have. A balanced wine has a balanced blend of alcoholic, acidity, sugar concentration and tannins on the palate.

D.O.

Abbreviation for Denominación de Origen, meaning designation of origin in Spanish. The official category in Spain used for wines that production location, grave varieties and other features are set by Spain Law.

D.O.C.

Abbreviation for Denominazione di origine controllata term, meaning registered designation of origin, the official category for wines that production location, grave varieties and other features are set by laws. Also designates the highest official wine category in Portugal, Denominação de Origem Controlada, which has the same meaning.

D.O.C.G.

Abbreviation that means Denomination of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin, Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita in Italian. Official category for highest quality wines in Italy.

Domaine

French word that designates wine domain. Frequently used in the Burgundy region.

Demi-sec/semi-dry

A term used for wines with a mild or softly perceptible sweetness. The sugar rate is usually about 4, 1-12 g/l.

Smoky

Flavors and aromas that evokes smoke or wood fire.

Flat

Used for wines with textures that are not 'alive' but tired and 'dead'.

Old vines

Mature vines, (usually of 40 years or more), and often refers to the very small quantity of grapes with good quality, that older, more mature vines will produce.

Old World

A general term used for European wine producing countries.

Old Oak

Barrels of 4 years or more that would lose their oaky qualities.

Fermentation

The transformation of the sugar naturally present in the grape juice to alcohol and carbon dioxide with the help of yeasts.

Barrel

Wooden containers used for preserving or producing wine.

Fermentation in Barrels

Term used for the fermentation in inert containers such as stainless steel vats followed by the transfer of the white wine to oak barrels for maturation process. These wines are softer than wines aged in barrels.

Phylloxera

Plant lice that produces galls on the leaves and roots of Vitis Vinifera grapes.

Body

The sensation of fullness that a wine leaves on the palate. Wines with high alcoholic percentage or with high extract are defined as full wines.

Fortified Wine

Wine with added alcohol.

Shortness

A wine is described as short if the taste on the palate after swallowing (or spitting) and it is not lasting, but that fades within few seconds.

Clone

A grape vine taken from a cutting of a master plant, and therefore carries the exact same properties and elements of the mother plant.

Complex

Not simple. This kind of wines involves various aromas and tastes. Their development and changes are extremely important.

Concentrated

Used for wines with intense aromas and taste.

Magnum

Name given to wine bottles with 1, 5 liter volume (double a standard wine bottle).

Non-vintage

Blend of wines produced with different years of wines.

Oxidation

A wine defection caused by excessive oxygen exposition. These kinds of wines are described as "oxidized" wines.

Oenology

Science of wines.

Brilliant

Term used for wines that features can be intensely perceived by senses. A wine may be brilliant in appearance, in nose or on the palate; the opposite term for all cases is "pale".

Riserva/Réserve /Reserva (Italy / France / Spain)

Wine aged longer than the standard and with higher quality, as per the strict laws of that country.

Sec (dry)

Wines that sweetness is not strongly perceived. The sugar concentration is often about 0,4g/l, and can rise up to 19g/l depending on their acidity.

Bottle Aging

Maturation of the wine in bottles. Most of the wines are aged in bottles for a short time before being put on the market. Quality wines must be aged by the consumer for some time.

Taste compounds

Organic materials present in grapes that gives taste and aroma to wines.

Length

The effectiveness and persistence of the taste on the palate after swallowing (or spitting) the wine. The astringency in the mouth caused by tannins are not taken into consideration.

Vin de Pays

Means local wine in French. Officially, the category for French wines that are below AOC wines.

Vinification

Process for transformation of grape juice to wine.

Vintage

A term that has various meanings. Can refer to wine harvest, the year of harvesting to start the wine production, or specifies that the wine is produced from harvests of only one year.

Viticulture

Name given for wine growing science. The climatic and edaphic conditions, selection of the grape variety to grow, establishment of vineyards, vaccinations, diseases and many other topics constitutes the scope of this science.

Vitis Vinifera

The most common wine grapes variety.

Demi-sec / Semi-dry

Term used for wines with a mild or softly perceptible sweetness.

Semi-sweet

Term used for wines that are sweeter than semi-dry but that are not totally sweet.

New World

General name used for wine producing countries outside of Europe.

Softening

The immersion of red grapes into their juice in order to get pulps, tannin and other materials to be dissolved. The term is generally used for the period that pulp and grape juice is in contact during the whole process, including the fermentation.

Roundness

Term used generally for wines with tannin, acidity and sugar concentration all presented in the wine in a balanced, rounded way.